Note: This post was adapted from the more developer-oriented “Piggybacking on backbone.js for performant mobile web”, originally published on Sawdust Software.
Native mobile apps are great. They provide a rich user interface (UI). They can easily access other core applications (e.g., camera, calendar, message center) on your smartphone to create stickier, more immersive experiences. They routinely provide a much faster user experience (UX) in terms of menu traversal and screen-to-screen navigation.
However these benefits come at a cost. They require lots of work: learning, developing, and testing on an entirely different tech stack (most likely iOS or Android). They bind you to navigate a proprietary app store release and submission process (one far slower than the ability to release software on your own web farms). Worse, these are not one-time costs. They can double the cost of adding new features (as you have to develop these for web and native mobile). The also introduce a new mobile OS compliance cost: keeping your app up-to-date with new mobile OS releases—while supporting users on older mobile OS versions—can routinely add 30% to your costs of mobile development and testing.
In some situations, the benefits of using a native mobile app far outweigh the costs; in others they do not. Luckily, there are many technologies and approaches available when you want to create a mobile web experience and do not require (or want to) development of a native mobile app:
Create mobile web-optimized templates
The responsive web design (RWD) movement has gained much traction in the design and development community. While it is appealing to create universal web templates that can detect and respond to the size of the browser screen, this is not always ideal for mobile web. More often than not, universal web templates can have quite large file sizes. Downloading these over a 3G connection can be quite slow. Worse, they can burn battery life on your customer’s phones, leading them to not use your site on mobile.
When considering functionality for mobile pay attention to size of the pages you need users to download. If the desktop (or ever increasingly Tablet-plus-WiFi) versions of your HTML templates are large, create mobile-only templates that are smaller and optimized for download and display on smartphones. If you are on a standard web framework, you have a range of plug-ins you can add to easily detect then customers are accessing your site with a mobile device and serve these templates (e.g., Django Mobile, User Agent (for Rails), Spring Mobile Device Module). You can even use these to serve up a different experience for mobile tablet (vs. mobile smartphone) users.
Use HTML5 and jQuery Mobile to emulate native mobile UIs
Thanks to the rise of mobile and responsive web design, there are now many libraries available to develop lightweight (i.e., small file size) touch-responsive web interfaces using HTML5. Some great examples include: JQuery mobile (if you are a jQuery purist), jQT (if you have a Sass shop), and Zepto (if your really want super fast performance).
When you combine these with mobile browser detection (see above), you can serve up HTML interfaces that use widgets that are virtually indistinguishable from their native mobile counterparts to 80% of your customers:
It is worth pointing out that using these libraries not only lets you emulate a mobile app experience, using them also keeps your teams on a single technology stack. Developers building web UIs can easily switch over and develop mobile web equivalents (or vice versa). This makes life much more interesting for developers (they can do more, more easily) and management (people can do more and switch to whatever is most important more easily).
Use backbone.js to load navigation control into the browser
One of the reasons that native mobile apps are able to navigate (between menus and moving from screen to screen) so quickly is that they embed a model-view-controller (MVC) architecture directly into the app installed on the mobile device. In an MVC architecture, the Controller directs what Views (screens, menu elements) to display when a user touches (or clicks) on something. On native mobile apps, the Controller is located on the device itself (an is accessible virtually instantly). This is very different than “traditional” browser based web-applications, where the View Controller is hundreds (or thousands) of miles away on a web server—something made even worse when a smartphone is trying to ping a server over a 3G (or worse) mobile connection.
As result web apps on a smartphone, tablet or desktop can be just as fast as native mobile OS apps. Several JS frameworks are available to achieve this. Google first developed Angular.js in 2009. Steve Sanderson of Microsoft developed Knockout.js a year later. Jeremy Ashkenas also developed Backbone.js—a favorite of many eCommerce and consumer web companies—in 2010.
This technology stack does not allow for completely offline operation, something that is possible to achieve with a native mobile application. If you need to support offline operation (for extended periods of time) without losing any data, you will still need to build a native mobile app with an embedded SQLite database. However, that is not the use case more the vast majority of mobile apps.
Credits & Disclaimer
This author of this post leads technology at CustomMade Ventures where we have used HTML5, Sass, jQuery Mobile, Backbone.js and Django Mobile to create a mobile web experience for ideation and collaboration for our two-sided marketplace. Translation of this architecture into reality is the work of two great members of our Engineering team: Brendan Smith and Mike Manning.